One of the goals of a modem mixed economy is to provide a safety net for those who are temporarily permanently unable to provide adequate incomes – for .themselves. One reason for these policies is to promote greater equality.

what are the different concepts of equality? To begumth, democratic societies affirm the principle of equality of f generally including the right to vote, the right to trial by jury, and the right to Cree speech and. association. In the 196Os,liberal philosophers espoused the view that people should also have equal opportunistic- In other words, all people should play by the same rules on a level playing field. All should have equal access to the best schools training, and-jobs. Then discrimination on the basis:n race or gender or religion would disappear. Manchester taken to promote greater equality, but inequalities of opportunity have proved very stubborn, and even·A mecca at the dawn of the new millennium falls fur short of the goal of equal economic opportunity.

A third, and the most fur-reaching, ideal is equality of cecum outcome.In this utopia, people would have the same  consumption whether they were smart or dull, eager or lazy, lucky or unfortunate. Wages would be the same for doctor and nurse, lawyer and secretary. “From each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs” was Karl Marx’s formulation
of this philosophy.

, Today, even the most radical socialist recognizes .that some differences in economic outcome are necessary if the economy is to function efficiently. Without some differential reward for different kinds of work, how can we ensure that people will do the un-. pleasant as ~ell as the pleasant work, that they will work on dangerous offshore oil derricks as well as in pleasant parks?.Insisting on equality of outcomes would severely hamper the functioning of the economy.

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