The largest group to suffer from economic discrimination is women. A generation ago. women earned about 70 percent of the wages of men. Part of this was due to differences in-education.job experience. and other factors. Today. the gender gap has shrunk sharply. Most of the remaining difference is the “family gap”-a wage penalty against women with children. , What lay behind the income differentials between men and women? The causes are complex. grounded in social customs and expectations. statistical discrimination. and economic factors such as education and work experience. In general. women are not paid less than men for the same job. Rather. the lower pay of women arose because women were excluded from certain high-paying professions.

such as engineering. construction. and coal mining. In addition. women tended to interrupt their careers to have children and perform ‘household duties. and this continues to persist in the family gap. Also. economic inequality of the sexes was maintained because. until-recently. few women’ were elected to the boards of directors of large corporations. to senior  partnerships in major law firms. or to tenured professorships in top universities.

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