CASE STUDY

WHO PAYS THE CORPORATE INCOME TAX?

The corporate income tax provides a good example of the importance of tax ‘incidence for tax policy. The corporate tax is popular among voters. After all, corporations are not people. Voters are always eager to have their taxes reduced and have some impersonal corporation pick up the tab.

But before deciding that the corporate income tax is a good way for the government to raise revenue, we should consider who bears the burden of the corporate tax. This is a difficult question on which economists disagree, but one thing is certain: People pay all taxes, When the government levies a tax on a corporation, the corporation is more like a tax collector than a taxpayer. The burden of the tax ultimately falls on people-the owners, customers, or workers of the corporation.

Many economists believe that workers and customers bear much of the burden of the corporate income tax. To see why, consider an example. Suppose that the u.s. government decides to raise the tax on the income earned by car companies. At first, this tax hurts the owners of the car companies, who receive less profit But over time, these owners will respond to the tax. Because producing cars is less profitable, they invest less in building new car factories. Instead, they invest their wealth in other ways-for example, by buying larger” houses or by building factories in other industries or other countries. With fewer car factories, the supply of cars declines, as does the demand for autoworkers . Thus, a tax on corporations making cars causes the price of cars to rise and the wages of autoworkers to fall.