Anarchism

TIle ultimate aim of the communists is to build a social structure in which there will be no need for the State. As we said above “the State will wither away.” This is technically known as anarchy. In ordinary language, anarchy means absence of government rule and disorder. But in the socialist phraseology it simply means ‘statelessness’ when the administration has become superfluous and the society regulates itself out there is no disorder. The communists believe that when capitalism has come to an end, all greed, selfishness.cheating  tyranny. etc., generally associated with capitalism will apparatus from the world and in their place   ill be established virtues of self-sacrifice. social service.goodwill. etc. Instead of grab ing. the people will adopt an attitude of sacrificing lor others. I tan will have been so much uplifted then. that there will he no need tor the police. The courts will be closed. Is it not surprising? Faience tells about the  ancient Indian society that there were no theft.’ and robbery and people did not lock their hou It I ih c that some time the anal schist dream n The economic and   life.

Fabian Socialists

Fabian socialists arc men of literature. Bernard haw was one of them. They sincerely believe that socialism is a question of conviction. If the people can only be convinced of the  of socialism power on car the can prevent its coming about. Through literary propaganda-novels. dramas. short tutorial’s, they expose the evils of capitalism and bring 0111 the merits and necessity of socialism. It is hoped that. In course or time. the world will come to believe ill socialism. and socialism will then come to prevail. They  wrong.

GENERAL FEATURES OF SOCIALISM

Although there is a real diversity of views among the  anti there are as many types of socialism as then: an: socialists. yet It i, possible to pick up a low general s of socialism  inn. The S’ in the abolition of activate ownership ill the nuttiness or production. Land, Directories  Castries railways. mines and every other means of production must be nationalized. Their ownership and control are to be vested in the State so that the State may provide work .or everybody. Socialization of the means of production is so important a characteristic feature of socialism that some
writers define socialism as social ownership of the Carissa of production. The means of production arc the property of the State and not of private individuals. The profits of all enterprises go to the State exchequer to be utilized for the benefit of society rather than for the benefit of a few private individuals. But it may be mentioned that it is necessary t o nationalist all means of production to bring about about socialism, General  it is considered sufficient and useful to nationalistic only the principal means of production like heavy and basic industries, mines. banks means of u an spurt like railways. motor Inspired t. etc. However. State control-extends over all means of 1’1’0- suction anti the entire economy to make sure that the e C(1110111)functions to promote the interests of the society as a whole. So far as land i~ concerned. the actual tiller or a co-operative society can be given he ownership. In fact. ‘land to the tiller’ is the principal objective of socialism. Several other land reforms arc introduced so that the tiller is actually made the owner of land and he gets a proper reward tor hi, labour. Besides. the farmers arc cscout aged to form  Yawning societies so that la, gc scale  ca  he undertaken . (ii)  prism. Generally. there is to be enterprise.  is 10 he initiated and conducted by  State which wi II pay   other costs , heel’ profits to itself. Interest and IT.lt as paymcnt« respectively to the Gll’ilalists and the landlords will di-uppcar, lor the State will be the capitalist. landlord ami entrepreneur. How ver. in agriculture. as  mentioned above. co-operatives may be pc unit cd.

(iii) El’1I110mic Equality. Living on unearned income is to be discouraged. Remuneration for work is to he according to the nature of work and is not to be equal. Earnings will vart according to ability. A limited operation of the law of demand and supply in this connection is envisaged. There is, thus, no basis for the belief that under socialism all would be equal economically. No economic equality is guaranteed. But there arc to be no glaring inequalities, All possible steps are taken to reduce economic inequalities of income and wealth. Since industrial and business enterprises belong to the State, is little possibility ~f amassing wealth by private individuals. In other words. perfect economic, equality is not tIll! aim of socialism: However, it aims at social justice in the distribution of national income, It therefore, aims at giving a fair share to all in the national income. Some in qsality in incomes is considered essential to provide incentive for harder and better . Unless efficient workers are paid better no one will try to be efficient in his fork. Hence, workers will not fully  skill, ability and experience unless they are better rewarded. TIm . in case of perfect equality of incomes national output will go down and the nation is bound to suffer. The national economy will suffer in performance if income  equality is insisted upon. Thus, instead of perfect equality of incomes, the socialists aim at minimum practicable inequality. As Douglas Observes Basic aim of socialistic is not literal  absolute equality but the  minimum equality that is workable if human being” re to use their talents, not l share but fair shares, not perfect equality but social  lice.”  System of inheritance which leads to unearned income isis not permitted. Those factors of production, e.g., land. capital which can yield unearned incomes are national scd. But interest on saving given to the government is permissible.   Although. as we have  above, socialism does not guarantee perfect equality of income. it aims at providing equality of opportunity. In fact, to provide .equality of opportunity  is a basic objective of social Every individual, whether he belongs to a rich family’ or a poor family has an equal opportunity to nose in life under socialism. Every young person is given equal opportunity to receive education or training according to his aptitude so that he can enter a profession of his choice. Children of poor parents have to face lot of difficulties in life. The poor parents arc not ill a position to provide their children basic minimum means to equip themselves mentally or physically for life. They have no resources at their disposal to give the necessary education and training. Either they can-