World Population Growth, 1750-2150
According to the third proposition. as the food supply in a country increases. the people.will produce more children and would have larger families. This would increase the demand for food and the availability of food per person will again diminish. Therefore. according to Malthus . the standard of living of the people cannot rise permanently, unless they exercised restraints and limited the size of the family.
Preventive Checks, and (2) Positive Checks. Preventive Checks, Preventive check exercise their influence on the growth of population b) bringing down the birth rate. They are applied by man himself. They arise from man’s wisdom and foresight He the distress which frequently visits those who have large families. He may think that with a large number of children the standard of living of the family may be lowered. He may think that if he has to support a large family, be will have to face greater difficulties and harder than otherwise would be the case. He may not be able to give adequate education to his c I~n if there are many of them. Further, he may e pose his children poverty or charity by his inability to prov i for them. These considerations may force man to limit his family. Late marriage and self-re-train during married life are the examples of prevent e checks applied by man to limit the size.
Malthus recommended the use of preventive checks if mankind was to escape from the impending misery. If preventive checks were not effectively used: positive checks like diseases, ‘wars and famines In the first edition of his book. Malthus laid a great stress on the role of positive checks in keeping the population under control. The following remarks made by him in the first edition of his book show the way in which his mind was working. “Famine seems to be the last resort, the most dreadful resource of nature -,The power of population is so superior to the power of the earth to provide subsistence …. that the premature death must in some shape or the other visit the human race.
harshness of his theory and gave preventive checks a little more importance. Thus. he held out some hope for the human race through the operation of preventive checks reducing the birth rate. But he suit remained firm in his pessimistic view. He put little faith in self-restraint and late marriages, since he was of the opinion that sex urge among ~ people was very strong .Moreover, in these I later editions, Malthus also dropped the expressions of geometric and arithmetic progressions but still rained that the
increase in population the growth in food supply and checked by the use of preventive excessive population would operation of positive checks to the surplus population.