Objectives of planning
Planning is regarded as a panacea for all economic ills. It is. therefore. advocated for the achievement of a variety of objectives. It may be introduced for increasing national income or raising living standards or to fill up gaps in economic structure or to achieve self-sufficiency in food and raw materials or for bringing about rapid and adequate industrialization or to correct ‘serious imbalance or lopsidedness in economic development or to reduce inequalities and establish a socialistic pattern of society and so on. The objectives are not the same for all countries or the same for a country at all times. What precisely :!re the objectives placed by the planners before them depends on the stage of economic development, the nature of economic development, sociology-economic conditions prevalent at the time and the requirements of a particular situation. It may be pointed out at the same time that all these objectives arc inter- related dun complementary rather than exclusive.
All modem States have, in fact. underwritten employment. If they cannot provide work, they have to give doles which are demoralizing and inadequate. Unemployment is the byproduct of capitalism and is considered to be the biggest headache of a modern capitalistic society. If capitalism cannot be ended, at any rate, unemployment must be ended. In such cases. efforts of planned development and directed to those directions and those sectors where unemployment is found to exist.
We in Indian may not be able to create conditions of full employment at any foreseeable future but we can certainly reduce the incidence of unemployment. For instance. India’s Five- Year Plans have aimed at providing additional employment opportunities for millions of additional hands. The objective of British planning during 1945-57 was one of achieving full employment. Thus, creating employment or reducing unemployment may well be a major objective of planning
Fourth Plan aimed to raise it by per cent. Only a concentrated and planned effort can raise national income .The unplanned development does not register any substantial progress in this direction, because the productive effort is diffused. Maximization of national income has been the objective before planning authorities in the U.S.A.