Anarchism

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Anarchism TIle ultimate aim of the communists is to build a social structure in which there will be no need for the State. As we said above “the State will wither away.” This is technically known as anarchy. In ordinary language, anarchy means absence of government rule and disorder. But in the socialist phraseology it simply means ‘statelessness’ when the administration […]

Functions oF the Fund

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Functions oF the Fund From the brief account of the international Monetary Fund given above, it can hc seen that the Find  performs five major functions: i) It serves as If any liquidating an adverse balance of payments will come to its aid. It docs not, however, undcuikc to supply all lite foreign exchange that a country may need. All […]

Progressive System

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Progressive System  Further. with the quickening (If the pace of technical progress. riskiness of business has increased so that e\en, though the normal economic life of capital assets may extend over a long period. businessmen want to recover their capital costs in a short period of three to four years. In such a situation. the rate of interest docs not exercise […]

Direct Action

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Direct Action only as a measure to meet exceptional emergendes because it is open to serious abuse Direct Action and Moral Suuvinn: The other methods of credit control may be noted only briefly. There is what is called ‘direct action.’ This implies coercive measures like refusal on the part of the central bank to rediscount for banks whose credit policy is not […]

Central Bunk

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Central Bunk “A ‘central bank’ is a’bank of the government ‘hich regulate, controls, directs and manages the complete Iiuar curl system in an economy with the sole objective or public interest by varying the total supply of money in an economy.” A majority of the central banks in the world arc not able to follow their own independent policies. They used to […]

Varying Reserve Requirements

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Varying Reserve Requirements When it is sought to restrict credit, the central bank may raise the reserve ratio. In 1960, for instance, the Reserve Bank of India required the scheduled banks to maintain with it additional reserve equivalent to 25 per cent of the increase in their bank deposits (later raised to 50 per cent). The Reserve Bank Act was amcnded […]

Open Market Operations

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Open Market Operations The Theory. Thc term Operations’ in the wider sense means purchase or sale by a central bank of any kind of paper in which it deals, like government securities or any other public securities 01 trade bills, etc. In practice, however, the term is applied to purchase or sale of government securities, short-term as well as longterm. at the […]

Thus,the raising of the bank rate has two effects:

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Thus,the raising of the bank rate has two effects: (i) lunuedlate, and (ii) ultunatc.. lmmediatcly. borrowing is discouraged as the discounting of bills becomes a costly affair. Money. therefore. docs not leave the banks. Instead. funds flow in even from abroad as the raising of the bank rate is followed by the raising of the hankers’ deposit rate. liltimatcly. prices fall […]

Qualitative or Selective Controls

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Qualitative or Selective Controls (1) Rcgu J n of consumer credit or regulating volume of instalment credit buying (a) by regularmg the minimum down payments for specified goods. (b) ny fixing tl e c ‘erage of selective consumers’ durable good, (c) by regulating the maximum maturities (payn ent period) on all instalment credit, and (d) hy fi:l.lI1g II e maximum […]