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As we have seen, measuring discrimination is often difficult. To determine whether one group of workers is discriminated against, a researcher must correct fer differences in the productivity between that group and other workers in the economy. Yet in most firms, it is difficult to measure a particular worker’s contribution to the production of goods and services.

One type of firm in which such corrections are easier is the sports team. Professional teams have many objective measures of productivity. In baseball, for instance, we can measure a player’s batting average, the frequency of home runs, the number of stolen bases, and so on. Studies of sports teams suggest that racial discrimination is, in fact, common and that much 01 me blame lies with customers. One study, published in the Journal of Labor Economics , examined the salaries of basketball players: It found that black players earned 20 percent less than white players of comparable ability. The study also found that attendance at basketball games was larger for teams with a greater proportion of white players. One interpretation of these facts is that, at least at the time of the study, customer discrimination made black players less profitable than white players for team owners. In the presence of such customer discrimination, a discriminatory wage gap can persist, even if team owners care only about profit.

A similar situation once existed for baseball players. A study using data from the late 1960s showed that black players earned less than comparable white players. Moreover, fewer fans attended games pitched by blacks than games pitched by whites, even though black pitchers had better records than white pitchers. Studies of more recent salaries in baseball, however, have found no evidence of discriminatory wage differentials.

Another study, published in the Quarterly Journal of Economics in 1990, examined the market prices of old baseball cards. This study found similar evidence of discrimination. The cards of black hitters sold for 10 percent less than the cards of comparable white hitters. The cards of black pitchers sold for 13 percent less than the cards of comparable white pitchers These results suggest customer discrimination among baseball fans.

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